This glossary defines the technical terms used on the site that new users might not be familiar with. .
A : B : C : D : E : F : G : H : I : J : K : L : M : N : O : P : Q : R : S : T : U : V : W : X : Y : Z
Biological control: a means of controlling pests using other living organisms that relies on predation (animals killing other animals for food), herbivory (animals eating plants) or parasitism (using other animals or plants for food, but not killing them outright). There are currently no effective biological controls for invasive ants.
Buffer zone: an area surrounding or directly beside a pest population, that is not infested with that pest. It is often treated with toxic baits, or has other special control measures applied to it (such as keeping it clear of objects or debris that could provide nesting sites) in order to reduce the likelihood of the target pest spreading.
CRB: Coconut rhinoceros beetle.
CRB-G: CRB has two different 'biotypes' in the Pacific. CRB-G is not affected by the viral biocontrol isolates that have been used to control CRB-S. This means CRB-G can reach very high numbers that cause severe damage in palm plantations, and is very difficult to control. The G in the name stands for Guam, which is the first place the biotype was found. It is not known where the CRB-G biotype came from.
CRB-S: is the biotype susceptible to known virus isolates. The S in the name stands for Susceptible.
CRB-P: an older name for CRB-S. The P in the name stands for Pacific.
Destruction: a control method that neutralises a potential threat, such as heat treatment, fumigation or cold treatment. This action may result in the carrier item being destroyed: e.g. if a potted plant that is found to have insects nesting among its roots is heat treated, the plant may also be killed.
DNA: RNA and DNA are molecules (chemical building blocks) known as nucleic acids, and both are used for transmitting genetic information within (and between) living things. Structurally, DNA and RNA molecules are almost identical. However, there are fundamental differences between the two that leads to the molecules having very different functions. A simplified perspective is that plants, animals, fungi and bacteria use only DNA as the template for their genetic make-up. These organisms use different types of RNA to transmit information, usually to make up amino acids, and then proteins. The genetic material of viruses can be DNA or RNA. RNA viruses (and viroids) use RNA as the template for their genetic make-up and for transmitting information.
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA): an EIA is an analysis of the potential non-target effects of a management plan or activity on the environment. An ESIA also includes social and economic impacts. Both analyses also include suggestions on how these potential non-target effects can be made less serious.
Eradication: the removal of every individual of a species from the infested country, such that the only way the species could re-establish is to re-enter the country from another country. Eradication should be demonstrated by surveillance.
Half-life: the half-life is the time required for half of the compound to break down in the environment. Thus, 1 half-life = 50% remaining, 2 half-lives = 25% remaining, 3 half-lives = 12% remaining, 4 half-lives = 6% remaining, 5 half-lives = 3% remaining. Some chemicals metabolise or degrade into other chemicals of toxicological significance, and half-lives can vary widely depending on environmental factors.
Impact(s): a routinely used term in invasion ecology and management that refers to the negative effects of an invasive species on resident native organisms (biodiversity), agriculture, economy, health or lifestyle.
Incursion: a single arrival event of an invasive species in a new environment. Typically an incursion is identified at the time of arrival (or first detection), and an incursion response plan developed. The arrival of an organism within a country after it has crossed the border.
Incursion response plan: effectively an emergency response plan to deal with a newly detected incursion of an invasive species. Incursion response plans include a number of steps including: 1) initial detection and response; 2) delimiting survey and; 3) draft management plan, including a surveillance plan, a plan for treatment and eradication (if possible), a communications strategy, specifications for movement controls, monitoring progress, a budget, and an organisational plan.
Integrated Pest Management (IPM): the goal of IPM is to keep pest populations to a level below which that are doing harm. IPM involves using multiple control options together for the economic control of pests. In an agricultural context the Food and Agriculture Organization defines IPM as "the careful consideration of all available pest control techniques and subsequent integration of appropriate measures that discourage the development of pest populations and keep pesticides and other interventions to levels that are economically justified and reduce or minimize risks to human health and the environment. IPM emphasizes the growth of a healthy crop with the least possible disruption to agro-ecosystems and encourages natural pest control mechanisms".
Management: reducing or eliminating the impacts of established invasive species, by eradication, containment, exclusion, or population reduction by physical, chemical or biological control. Note that although the title of the SPC and SPREP Guidelines for Invasive Species Management in the Pacific refers to management, in this latter context biosecurity is included as part of management.
Movement Control: preventing an invasive insect from spreading by Controlled Area Notices and Restricted Place Notices and their conditions. Also includes the processing of movement permits, management of perimeter controls, hygiene barriers and signage, and the provision of conveyance decontamination sites.
Passive surveillance: the detection of exotic species through haphazard, unplanned and unsolicited observations by the general public, farmers, orchardists, gardeners, veterinarians, plant pathologists and others.
Photosynthesis: the process by which a plant makes sugars.
RNA: RNA and DNA are molecules (chemical building blocks) known as nucleic acids, and both are used for transmitting genetic information within (and between) living things. Structurally, DNA and RNA molecules are almost identical. However, there are fundamental differences between the two that leads to the molecules having very different functions. A simplified perspective is that plants, animals, fungi and bacteria use only DNA as the template for their genetic make-up. These organisms use different types of RNA to transmit information, usually to make up amino acids, and then proteins. The genetic material of viruses can be DNA or RNA. RNA viruses (and viroids) use RNA as the template for their genetic make-up and for transmitting information.
Vector: a vector is the object that moves an invasive species from one place to another. This may be a vehicle (car, truck, or boat); a commodity (bananas, taro, breadfruit); or other method of movement.